Which seems to be a copy of it, as is also I think
(in substance) the Bodleian.
 In this note I am particularly indebted to the researches of the
Emperor Napoleon III. on this subject. (Etudes sur le passe et
l'avenir de l'Artillerie; 1851.)
 Thus Joinville mentions the journey of Jehan li Ermin, the king's
artillerist, from Acre to Damascus, pour acheter cornes et glus pour
faire arbalestres - to buy horns and glue to make crossbows withal
In the final defence of Acre (1291) we hear of balistae bipedales
(with a forked rest?) and other vertiginales (traversing on a pivot)
that shot 3 quarrels at once, and with such force as to stitch the
Saracens to their bucklers - cum clypeis consutos interfecerunt.
The crossbow, though apparently indigenous among various tribes of
Indo-China, seems to have been a new introduction in European warfare
in the 12th century. William of Brittany in a poem called the
Philippis, speaking of the early days of Philip Augustus, says: -
"Francigenis nostris illis ignota diebus
Res erat omnino quid balistarius arcus,
Quid balista foret, nec habebat in agmine toto
Rex quenquam sciret armis qui talibus uti."
- Duchesne, Hist. Franc. Script., V. 115.
Anna Comnena calls it [Greek: Tzagra] (which looks like Persian
charkh), "a barbaric bow, totally unknown to the Greeks"; and she
gives a very lengthy description of it, ending: