The Journey to the Polar Sea, by John Franklin

 -  Many bears prowl about the banks of this
river in summer; of these the grizzly bear is the most ferocious - Page 160
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Many Bears Prowl About The Banks Of This River In Summer; Of These The Grizzly Bear Is The Most Ferocious And Is Held In Dread Both By Indians And Europeans.

The traveller in crossing these plains not only suffers from the want of food and water but is also

Exposed to hazard from his horse stumbling in the numerous badger-holes. In many large districts the only fuel is the dried dung of the buffalo; and when a thirsty traveller reaches a spring he has not unfrequently the mortification to find the water salt.

Carlton House and La Montee are provision-posts, only an inconsiderable quantity of furs being obtained at either of them. The provisions are procured in the winter season from the Indians in the form of dried meat and fat and, when converted by mixture into pemmican, furnish the principal support of the voyagers in their passages to and from the depots in summer. A considerable quantity of it is also kept for winter use at most of the fur-posts as the least bulky article that can be taken on a winter journey. The mode of making pemmican is very simple, the meat is dried by the Indians in the sun or over a fire, and pounded by beating it with stones when spread on a skin. In this state it is brought to the forts where the admixture of hair is partially sifted out and a third part of melted fat incorporated with it, partly by turning the two over with a wooden shovel, partly by kneading them together with the hands. The pemmican is then firmly pressed into leathern bags, each capable of containing eighty-five pounds and, being placed in an airy place to cool, is fit for use.

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